PHILIPPINES: The Filipino Other people Prior to the Arrival of the Spaniards

PHILIPPINES: The Filipino Other people Prior to the Arrival of the Spaniards

Place of Tribes.—At the arrival of the Spaniards, the inhabitants of the Philippines turns out to were disbursed by means of tribes in a lot the similar means as at the moment. Then, as now, the Bisaya occupied the central islands of the archipelago and one of the northern coast of Mindanao. The Bicol, Tagálog, and Pampango had been in the similar portions of Luzon as we discover them to-day. The Ilocano occupied the coastal simple dealing with the China Sea, however because the arrival of the Spaniards they have got expanded significantly and their settlements are actually a large number of in Pangasinan, Nueva Vizcaya, and the valley of the Cagayan.

The Selection of Other people.—Those tribes which to-day quantity just about 7,000,000 souls, on the time of Magellan’s discovery had been, most certainly, no more than 500,000. The primary enumeration of the inhabitants made by means of the Spaniards in 1591, and which integrated nearly all of those tribes, provides a inhabitants of not up to 700,000. (See Bankruptcy VIII., The Philippines 3 Hundred Years In the past.)

There are different details too that display us how sparse the inhabitants will have to were. The Spanish expeditions discovered many coasts and islands within the Bisayan crew with out population. Once in a while a sail or a canoe can be noticed, after which those would disappear in some small “estero” or mangrove swamp and the land appear as unpopulated as earlier than. At positive issues, like Limasaua, Butúan, and Bohol, the natives had been extra a large number of, and Cebu used to be a big and thriving neighborhood; however the Spaniards had just about in all places to seek for settled puts and cultivated lands.

The sparsity of inhabitants could also be effectively indicated by means of the good shortage of meals. The Spaniards had a lot issue in securing enough provisions. A small quantity of rice, a pig and a couple of chickens, had been accessible right here and there, however the Filipinos had no massive provides. After the agreement of Manila used to be made, a big a part of the meals of town used to be drawn from China. The very ease with which the Spaniards marched the place they willed and diminished the Filipinos to obedience presentations that the latter had been susceptible in numbers. Laguna and the Camarines appear to have been essentially the most populous parts of the archipelago. All of this stuff and others display that the Filipinos had been however a small fraction in their provide quantity.

Alternatively, the Negritos appear to have been extra a large number of, or no less than extra in proof. They had been in an instant spotted at the island of Negros, the place at the moment they’re few and confined to the inner; and within the neighborhood of Manila and in Batangas, the place they’re not discovered, they had been mingling with the Tagálog inhabitants.

Prerequisites of Tradition.—The tradition of the quite a lot of tribes, which is now relatively the similar all the way through the archipelago, offered some variations. Within the southern Bisayas, the place the Spaniards first entered the archipelago, there appear to have been two varieties of natives: the hill dwellers, who lived within the inside of the islands in small numbers, who wore clothes of tree bark and who from time to time constructed their homes within the timber; and the ocean dwellers, who had been very similar to the existing day Moro tribes south of Mindanao, who’re referred to as the Sámal, and who constructed their villages over the ocean or at the shore and lived a lot in boats. Those had been most certainly later arrivals than the woodland humans. From either one of those parts the Bisaya Filipinos are descended, however whilst the coast humans were completely absorbed, one of the hill-folk are nonetheless pagan and uncivilized, and will have to be very a lot as they had been when the Spaniards first got here.

The easiest grade of tradition used to be within the settlements the place there used to be common business with Borneo, Siam, and China, and particularly about Manila, the place many Mohammedan Malays had colonies.

Languages of the Malayan Peoples.—Except for the Negrito, the entire languages of the Philippines belong to at least one nice circle of relatives, which has been referred to as the “Malayo-Polynesian.” All are believed to be derived from one very historical mother-tongue. It’s astonishing how broadly this Malayo-Polynesian speech has unfold. Farthest east within the Pacific there’s the Polynesian, then within the teams of small islands, referred to as Micronesian; then Melanesian or Papuan; the Malayan all the way through the East Indian archipelago, and to the north the languages of the Philippines. However this isn’t all; for a ways westward at the coast of Africa is the island of Madagascar, a lot of whose languages haven’t any reference to African however belong to the Malayo-Polynesian circle of relatives.

The Tagálog Language.—It will have to be a question of serious pastime to Filipinos that the good scientist, Baron William von Humboldt, regarded as the Tagálog to be the richest and maximum best possible of the entire languages of the Malayo-Polynesian circle of relatives, and most likely the kind of all of them. “It possesses,” he mentioned, “the entire bureaucracy jointly of which explicit ones are discovered singly in different dialects; and it has preserved all of them with very trifling exceptions unbroken, and in complete solidarity and symmetry.” The Spanish friars, on their arrival within the Philippines, faithful themselves directly to finding out the local dialects and to the preparation of prayers and catechisms in those local tongues. They had been very a hit of their research. Father Chirino tells us of 1 Jesuit who realized enough Tagálog in seventy days to evangelise and listen to confession. On this means the Bisayan, the Tagálog, and the Ilocano had been quickly mastered.

Within the mild of the opinion of Von Humboldt, it’s attention-grabbing to search out those early Spaniards announcing the Tagálog essentially the most tough and essentially the most admirable. “Of them all,” says Padre Chirino, “the only which maximum happy me and stuffed me with admiration used to be the Tagálog. As a result of, as I mentioned to the primary archbishop, and afterwards to different critical individuals, each there and right here, I discovered in it 4 qualities of the 4 absolute best languages of the arena: Hebrew, Greek, Latin, and Spanish; of the Hebrew, the mysteries and obscurities; of the Greek, the articles and the precision now not best of the appellative but additionally of the right kind nouns; of the Latin, the wealth and magnificence; and of the Spanish, the great breeding, politeness, and courtesy.”

An Early Reference to the Hindus.—The Malayan languages comprise additionally a substantial share of phrases borrowed from the Sanskrit, and on this the Tagálog, Bisayan, and Ilocano are integrated. Whether or not those phrases had been handed alongside from one Malayan crew to some other, or whether or not they had been offered by means of the true presence and tool of the Hindu on this archipelago, could also be truthful floor for debate; however the case for the latter place has been so effectively and brilliantly put by means of Dr. Pardo de Tavera that his conclusions are right here given in his personal phrases. “The phrases which Tagálog borrowed,” he says, “are the ones which symbolize highbrow acts, ethical conceptions, feelings, superstitions, names of deities, of planets, of numerals of top quantity, of botany, of warfare and its effects and penalties, and in the end of titles and dignities, some animals, tools of business, and the names of cash.”

From the proof of those works, Dr. Pardo argues for a duration within the early historical past of the Filipinos, now not simply of industrial sex, like that of the Chinese language, however of Hindu political and social domination. “I don’t imagine,” he says, “and I base my opinion at the identical phrases that I’ve introduced in combination on this vocabulary, that the Hindus had been right here merely as traders, however that they ruled other portions of the archipelago, the place to-day are spoken essentially the most cultured languages,—the Tagálo, the Visayan, the Pampanga, and the Ilocano; and that the upper tradition of those languages comes exactly from the affect of the Hindu race over the Filipino.”

The Hindus within the Philippines.—“It’s unattainable to imagine that the Hindus, in the event that they got here best as traders, on the other hand nice their quantity, would have inspired themselves in this type of means as to present to those islanders the quantity and the type of phrases which they did give. Those names of dignitaries, of caciques, of top functionaries of the courtroom, of noble girls, point out that every one of those top positions with names of Sanskrit beginning had been occupied at one time by means of males who spoke that language. The phrases of a equivalent beginning for items of warfare, fortresses, and battle-songs, for designating items of non secular trust, for superstitions, feelings, emotions, commercial and farming actions, display us obviously that the war, faith, literature, business, and agriculture had been at one time within the palms of the Hindus, and that this race used to be successfully dominant within the Philippines.”

Programs of Writing a few of the Filipinos.—When the Spaniards arrived within the Philippines, the Filipinos had been the usage of programs of writing borrowed from Hindu or Javanese resources. This topic is so attention-grabbing that one cannot do higher than to cite in complete Padre Chirino’s account, as he’s the primary of the Spanish writers to say it and as his realize is relatively entire.

“So given are those islanders to studying and writing that there’s hardly ever a person, and far much less a girl, that doesn’t learn and write in letters ordinary to the island of Manila, very other from the ones of China, Japan, and of India, as shall be noticed from the next alphabet.

“The vowels are 3; however they serve for 5, and are,

a

e, i

o, u

The consonants are not more than twelve, and so they serve to jot down each consonant and vowel, on this shape. The letter by myself, with none level both above or beneath, sounds with a.

Ba

ca

da

ga

ha

l. a.

ma

na

pa

sa

ta

ya

Putting the purpose above, each and every one sounds with e or with i.

ᜊᜒ

ᜃᜒ

ᜇᜒ

ᜄᜒ

ᜑᜒ

ᜎᜒ

Bi

qui

di

gui

hello

li

be

que

de

gue

he

le

ᜋᜒ

ᜈᜒ

ᜉᜒ

ᜐᜒ

ᜎᜒ

ᜌᜒ

mi

ni

pi

si

ti

yi

me

ne

pe

se

te

ye

Putting the purpose beneath, it sounds with o or with u.

ᜊᜓ

ᜃᜓ

ᜇᜓ

ᜄᜓ

ᜑᜓ

ᜎᜓ

bo

co

do

cross

ho

lo

bu

cu

du

gu

hu

lu

ᜋᜓ

ᜈᜓ

ᜉᜓ

ᜐᜓ

ᜎᜓ

ᜌᜓ

mo

no

po

so

to

yo

mu

nu

pu

su

tu

yu

As an example, in an effort to say ‘cama,’ the 2 letters by myself suffice.

ca

ma

If to the    ᜃ there’s positioned some degree above, it’ll say

ᜃᜒ

que

ma

Whether it is given to each beneath, it’ll say

ᜃᜓ

ᜋᜓ

co

mo

The general consonants are provided or understood in all instances, and with the intention to say ‘cantar,’ they write

ca

ta

barba,

ba

ba

However with all, and that with out many evasions, they make themselves understood, and so they themselves perceive marvellously. And the reader provides, with a lot ability and simplicity, the consonants which are missing. They’ve realized from us to jot down working the strains from the left hand to the best, however previously they simply wrote from above downwards, putting the primary line (if I bear in mind rightly) on the left hand, and proceeding with the others to the best, the other of the Chinese language and Jap…. They write upon canes or on leaves of a palm, the usage of for a pen some degree of iron. In this day and age in writing now not onlytheir personal but additionally our letters, they use a feather really well minimize, and paper like ourselves.

They’ve realized our language and pronunciation, and write in addition to we do, or even higher; for they’re so vivid that they be told the whole lot with the best ease. I’ve introduced with me handwriting with superb and right kind lettering. In Tigbauan, I had at school an overly small kid, who in 3 months’ time realized, by means of copying from well-written letters that I set him, to jot down sufficient higher than I, and transcribed for me writings of significance very faithfully, and with out mistakes or errors. However sufficient of languages and letters; now allow us to go back to our career with human souls.”

Sanskrit Supply of the Filipino Alphabet.—But even so the Tagálog, the Bisaya, Pampango, Pangasinan, and Ilocano had alphabets, or extra correctly syllabaries very similar to this one. Dr. Pardo de Tavera has amassed many information relating to them, and presentations that they had been certainly won by means of the Filipinos from a Sanskrit supply.

Early Filipino Writings.—The Filipinos used this writing for surroundings down their poems and songs, that have been their best literature. None of this, on the other hand, has come all the way down to us, and the Filipinos quickly followed the Spanish alphabet, forming the syllables vital to jot down their language from those letters. As these kind of have phonetic values, it’s nonetheless really easy for a Filipino to learn how to pronounce and so learn his personal tongue. Those previous characters lingered for a few centuries, in positive puts. Padre Totanes tells us that it used to be uncommon in 1705 to search out an individual who may just use them; however the Tagbanua, a pagan humans at the island of Paragua, use a equivalent syllabary to nowadays. But even so poems, they’d songs which they sang as they rowed their canoes, as they pounded the rice from its husk, and as they amassed for banquet or leisure; and particularly there have been songs for the lifeless. In those songs, says Chirino, they recounted the deeds in their ancestors or in their deities.

Chinese language within the Philippines.Early Industry.—Very other from the Hindu used to be the early affect of the Chinese language. There’s no proof that, prior to the Spanish conquest, the Chinese language settled or colonized in those islands in any respect; and but 300 years earlier than the arriving of Magellan their trading-fleets had been coming right here ceaselessly and several other of the islands had been widely known to them. One proof of this prehistoric business is within the historical Chinese language jars and pottery which were exhumed within the neighborhood of Manila, however the Chinese language writings themselves furnish us even higher evidence. In regards to the starting of the 13th century, despite the fact that now not previous than 1205, a Chinese language creator named Chao Ju-kua wrote a piece upon the maritime trade of the Chinese language humans. One bankruptcy of his paintings is dedicated to the Philippines, which he calls the rustic of Mayi. In line with this report it’s indicated that the Chinese language had been conversant in the islands of the archipelago 700 years in the past.

Chinese language, Description of the Other people.—“The rustic of Mayi,” says this attention-grabbing vintage, “is located to the north of Poni (Burney, or Borneo). A few thousand households inhabit the banks of an overly winding circulate. The natives dress themselves in sheets of material corresponding to mattress sheets, or quilt their our bodies with sarongs. (The sarong is the homosexual coloured, standard garment of the Malay.) Scattered during the intensive forests are copper Buddha photographs, however no person is aware of how they were given there.

Moro Brass Betel Field.

“When the service provider (Chinese language) ships arrive at this port they anchor in entrance of an open position … which serves as a marketplace, the place they business within the produce of the rustic. When a boat enters this port, the captain makes items of white umbrellas (to the mandarins). The traders are obliged to pay this tribute in an effort to download the great will of those lords.” The goods of the rustic are mentioned to be yellow wax, cotton, pearls, shells, betel nuts, and yuta material, which used to be most likely probably the most a number of cloths nonetheless woven of abacá, or piña. The articles imported by means of the Chinese language had been “porcelain, business gold, items of lead, glass beads of all colours, iron cooking-pans, and iron needles.”

The Negritos.—Very curious is the correct point out on this Chinese language writing, of the Negritos, the to start with accounts to be fabricated from the little blacks. “Within the inside of the valleys lives a race referred to as Hai-tan (Acta). They’re, of low stature, have spherical eyes of a yellow colour, curly hair, and their tooth are simply noticed between their lips. (This is, most certainly, now not darkened by means of betel-chewing or synthetic stains.) They construct their nests within the treetops and in each and every nest lives a circle of relatives, which best is composed of from 3 to 5 individuals. They trip about within the densest thickets of the forests, and, with out being noticed themselves, shoot their arrows on the passers-by; because of this they’re much feared. If the dealer (Chinese language) throws them a small porcelain bowl, they’re going to droop all the way down to catch it after which run away with it, shouting joyfully.”

Build up in Chinese language Industry.—Those junks additionally visited the extra central islands, however right here visitors used to be carried out at the ships, the Chinese language on arrival pronouncing themselves by means of beating gongs and the Filipinos popping out to them of their mild boats. Amongst different issues right here introduced by means of the natives for business are discussed “peculiar material,” most likely cinamay or jusi, and superb mats.

This Chinese language business endured most certainly relatively continuously till the arriving of the Spaniards. Then it won a huge building up during the call for for Chinese language food-products and wares made by means of the Spaniards, and as a result of the worth of the Mexican silver which the Spaniards introduced in change.

Industry with the Moro Malays of the South.—The unfold of Mohammedanism and particularly the basis of the colony of Borneo introduced the Philippines into vital business members of the family with the Malays of the south. Prior to the arriving of the Spaniards those members of the family appear to have been pleasant and non violent. The Mohammedan Malays despatched their praos northward for functions of business, and so they had been additionally settling within the north Philippines as they’d in Mindanao.

When Legaspi’s fleet, quickly after its arrival, lay close to the island of Bohol, the “Maestro de Campo” had a troublesome combat with a Moro vessel which had arise for business, and took six prisoners. Certainly one of them, whom they name the “pilot,” used to be intently interrogated by means of the Adelantado and a few attention-grabbing data acquired, which is recorded by means of Padre San Augustin. Legaspi had a Malay slave interpreter with him and San Augustin says that Padre Urdaneta “knew effectively the Malayan language.” The pilot mentioned that “the ones of Borneo introduced for business with the Filipinos, copper and tin, which used to be delivered to Borneo from China, porcelain, dishes, and bells made of their style, very other from those who the Christians use, and benzoin, and coloured blankets from India, and cooking-pans made in China, and that in addition they introduced iron lances really well tempered, and knives and different articles of barter, and that during change for them they took clear of the islands gold, slaves, wax, and a type of small seashell which they name ‘sijueyes,’ and which passes for cash within the kingdom of Siam and different puts; and likewise they convey off some white cloths, of which there’s a super amount within the islands.”

Butúan, at the north coast of Mindanao, turns out to were relatively a trading-place resorted to by means of vessels from all quarters. This nation, like many different portions of the Philippines, has comprised of time immemorial small amounts of gold, and the entire early voyagers talk of the gold earrings and adorns of the natives. Butúan additionally produced sugarcane and used to be a trading-port for slaves. This unlucky visitors in human existence turns out to were now not bizarre, and used to be without doubt stimulated by means of the trade with Borneo. Junks from Siam buying and selling with Cebu had been additionally encountered by means of the Spaniards.

Moro Brass Cannon, or “Lantaka.”

Results of this Sex and Trade.—This sex and visitors had familiar the Filipinos with most of the equipment of civilized existence lengthy earlier than the arriving of the Spaniards. Their chiefs and datos wearing silks, and maintained some splendor of atmosphere; just about the entire inhabitants of the tribes of the coast wrote and communicated by way of a syllabary; vessels from Luzon traded as a ways south as Mindanao and Borneo, even if the goods of Asia right kind got here during the fleets of foreigners; and most likely what signifies extra obviously than the rest the improvement the Filipinos had been making via their communique with out of doors humans is their use of firearms. Of this level there’s no query. Far and wide within the neighborhood of Manila, on Lubang, in Pampanga, at Cainta and Laguna de Bay, the Spaniards encountered forts mounting small cannon, or “lantakas.” The Filipinos appear to have understood, additionally, the humanities of casting cannon and of creating powder. The primary gun-factory established by means of the Spaniards used to be accountable for a Filipino from Pampanga.

Early Political and Social Lifestyles.The Barangay.—The weakest facet of the tradition of the early Filipinos used to be their political and social group, and so they had been susceptible right here in exactly the similar means that the now uncivilized peoples of northern Luzon are nonetheless susceptible. Their state didn’t include the entire tribe or country; it integrated merely the neighborhood. Outdoor of the settlers in a single fast neighborhood, all others had been enemies or at maximum foreigners. There have been within the Philippines no massive states, nor even nice rajas and sultans equivalent to had been discovered within the Malay Archipelago, however as an alternative on each and every island had been a mess of small communities, each and every impartial of the opposite and continuously waging warfare.

The unit in their political order used to be slightly cluster of homes from thirty to at least one hundred households, referred to as a “barangay,” and which nonetheless exists within the Philippines because the “barrio.” On the head of each and every barangay used to be a first-rate referred to as the “dato,” a phrase not used within the northern Philippines, despite the fact that it persists a few of the Moros of Mindanao. The powers of those datos inside of their small spaces seem to have been nice, and so they had been handled with utmost recognize by means of the folk.

The barangays had been grouped in combination in tiny federations together with about as a lot territory as the existing cities, whose affairs had been carried out by means of the chiefs or datos, even if from time to time they appear to have all been in obedience to a unmarried leader, recognized in some puts because the “hari,” at different instances by means of the Hindu phrase “raja,” or the Mohammedan time period “sultan.” Every so often the ability of this kind of rajas turns out to have prolonged over the complete of a small island, however normally their “kingdoms” embraced just a few miles.

Adjustments Made by means of the Spaniards.—The Spaniards, in implementing their authority during the islands, took away the true energy from the datos, grouping the barangays into cities, or “pueblos,” however making the datos “cabezas de barrio,” or “gobernadorcillos.” One thing of the previous difference between the dato, or “essential,” and the typical guy could also be nonetheless represented within the “gente illustrada,” or the extra rich, skilled, and influential elegance present in each and every the city, and the “gente baja,” or the deficient and uneducated.

Categories of Filipinos underneath the Datos.—Underneath the datos, in line with Chirino and Morga, there have been 3 categories of Filipinos; the loose individuals, or “maharlica,” who paid no tribute to the dato, however who accompanied him to warfare, rowed his boat when he went on a adventure, and attended him in his area. This elegance is named by means of Morga “timauas.”

Then there used to be an overly massive elegance, who seem to have been freedmen or liberated slaves, who had obtained their very own houses and lived with their households, however who owed to dato or maharlica heavy money owed of provider; to sow and harvest in his ricefields, to have a tendency his fish-traps, to row his canoe, to construct his area, to wait him when he had visitors, and to accomplish every other tasks that the executive would possibly command. Those semi-free had been referred to as “aliping namamahay,” and their situation of bondage descended to their youngsters.

Underneath those existed a category of slaves. Those had been the “siguiguiliris,” and so they had been a large number of. Their slavery arose in numerous techniques. Some had been those that as youngsters have been captured in warfare and their lives spared. Some was slaves by means of promoting their freedom in instances of starvation. However maximum of them was slaves via debt, which descended from father to son. The sum of 5 or 6 pesos used to be sufficient in some instances to deprive a person of his freedom.

Those slaves had been completely owned by means of their lord, who may just theoretically promote them like farm animals; however, regardless of its unhealthy chances, this Filipino slavery used to be ordinarily now not of a merciless or distressing nature. The slaves continuously related on kindly members of the family with their masters and weren’t overworked. This type of slavery nonetheless persists within the Philippines a few of the Moros of Mindanao and Jolo. Kids of slaves inherited their oldsters’ slavery. If one father or mother used to be loose and the opposite slave, the primary, 3rd, and 5th youngsters had been loose and the second one, fourth, and 6th slaves. This complete topic of inheritance of slavery used to be interestingly labored out in minute main points.

Lifestyles within the Barangay.—Neighborhood feeling used to be very robust throughout the barangay. A person may just now not go away his personal barangay for existence in some other with out the consent of the neighborhood and the cost of cash. If a person of 1 barrio married a girl of some other, their youngsters had been divided between the 2 barangays. The barangay used to be chargeable for the great behavior of its contributors, and if considered one of them suffered an damage from a person out of doors, the entire barangay needed to be appeased. Disputes and wrongs between contributors of the similar barangay had been referred to plenty of previous males, who determined the topic in keeping with the customs of the tribe, that have been passed down by means of custom.

The Faith of the Filipinos.—The Filipinos at the arrival of the Spaniards had been fetish-worshipers, however they’d one spirit whom they believed used to be the best of all and the writer or maker of items. The Tagálog referred to as this deity Bathala, the Bisaya, Laon, and the Ilocano, Kabunian. In addition they worshiped the spirits in their ancestors, that have been represented by means of small photographs referred to as “anitos.” Fetishes, that are any items believed to own miraculous energy, had been not unusual a few of the humans, and idols or photographs had been worshiped. Pigafetta describes some idols which he noticed in Cebu, and Chirino tells us that, throughout the reminiscence of Filipinos whom he knew, they’d idols of stone, wooden, bone, or the enamel of a crocodile, and that there have been a few of gold.

In addition they reverenced animals and birds, particularly the crocodile, the raven, and a legendary chook of blue or yellow colour, which used to be referred to as by means of the identify in their deity Bathala. They’d no temples or public puts of worship, however each and every one had his anitos in his personal area and carried out his sacrifices and acts of worship there. As sacrifices they killed pigs or chickens, and made such events instances of feasting, music, and drunkenness. The lifetime of the Filipino used to be certainly full of superstitious fears and imaginings.

The Mohammedan Malays.—The Mohammedans out of doors of southern Mindanao and Jolo, had settled within the neighborhood of Manila Bay and on Mindoro, Lubang, and adjoining coasts of Luzon. The unfold of Mohammedanism used to be stopped by means of the Spaniards, even if it’s narrated that for a very long time a lot of the ones residing at the shores of Manila Bay refused to devour beef, which is forbidden by means of the Koran, and practiced the ceremony of circumcision. As past due as 1583, Bishop Salazar, in writing to the king of affairs within the Philippines, says the Moros had preached the regulation of Mohammed to nice numbers in those islands and by means of this preaching most of the Gentiles had develop into Mohammedans; and extra he provides, “Those that have won this foul regulation guard it with a lot patience and there’s nice issue in making them abandon it; and with reason too, for the explanations they offer, to our disgrace and confusion, are that they had been higher handled by means of the preachers of Mohammed than they have got been by means of the preachers of Christ.”

Subject matter Growth of the Filipinos.—The fabric atmosphere of the Filipino earlier than the arriving of the Spaniards had been in just about each and every means relatively as they’re to-day. The “heart of inhabitants” of each and every the city to-day, with its nice church, tribunal, shops and homes of stone and wooden, is indubitably in marked distinction; however the look of a barrio slightly distance from the middle is to-day most certainly a lot because it used to be then. Then, as now, the majority of the folk lived in humble homes of bamboo and nipa raised on piles above the dampness of the soil; then, as now, the meals used to be in large part rice and the very good fish which abound in river and sea. There have been at the water the similar acquainted bancas and fish corrals, and on land the rice fields and cocoanut groves. The Filipinos had then lots of the provide domesticated animals,—canines, cats, goats, chickens, and pigs,—and most likely in Luzon the domesticated buffalo, even if this animal used to be broadly offered into the Philippines from China after the Spanish conquest. Horses got here with the Spaniards and their numbers had been greater by means of the bringing in of Chinese language mares, whose importation is continuously discussed.

The Spaniards offered additionally the cultivation of tobacco, espresso, and cacao, and most likely additionally the local corn of The usa, the maize, even if Pigafetta says they discovered it already rising within the Bisayas.

The Filipino has been suffering from those centuries of Spanish sovereignty a ways much less on his subject material facet than he has on his religious, and it’s principally within the deepening and raising of his emotional and psychological existence and now not within the improving of his subject material situation that advance has been made.

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PHILIPPINES: The Filipino Other people Prior to the Arrival of the Spaniards

PHILIPPINES: The Filipino Other people Prior to the Arrival of the Spaniards

Place of Tribes.—At the arrival of the Spaniards, the inhabitants of the Philippines turns out to were disbursed by means of tribes in a lot the similar means as at the moment. Then, as now, the Bisaya occupied the central islands of the archipelago and one of the northern coast of Mindanao. The Bicol, Tagálog, and Pampango had been in the similar portions of Luzon as we discover them to-day. The Ilocano occupied the coastal simple dealing with the China Sea, however because the arrival of the Spaniards they have got expanded significantly and their settlements are actually a large number of in Pangasinan, Nueva Vizcaya, and the valley of the Cagayan.

The Selection of Other people.—Those tribes which to-day quantity just about 7,000,000 souls, on the time of Magellan’s discovery had been, most certainly, no more than 500,000. The primary enumeration of the inhabitants made by means of the Spaniards in 1591, and which integrated nearly all of those tribes, provides a inhabitants of not up to 700,000. (See Bankruptcy VIII., The Philippines 3 Hundred Years In the past.)

There are different details too that display us how sparse the inhabitants will have to were. The Spanish expeditions discovered many coasts and islands within the Bisayan crew with out population. Once in a while a sail or a canoe can be noticed, after which those would disappear in some small “estero” or mangrove swamp and the land appear as unpopulated as earlier than. At positive issues, like Limasaua, Butúan, and Bohol, the natives had been extra a large number of, and Cebu used to be a big and thriving neighborhood; however the Spaniards had just about in all places to seek for settled puts and cultivated lands.

The sparsity of inhabitants could also be effectively indicated by means of the good shortage of meals. The Spaniards had a lot issue in securing enough provisions. A small quantity of rice, a pig and a couple of chickens, had been accessible right here and there, however the Filipinos had no massive provides. After the agreement of Manila used to be made, a big a part of the meals of town used to be drawn from China. The very ease with which the Spaniards marched the place they willed and diminished the Filipinos to obedience presentations that the latter had been susceptible in numbers. Laguna and the Camarines appear to have been essentially the most populous parts of the archipelago. All of this stuff and others display that the Filipinos had been however a small fraction in their provide quantity.

Alternatively, the Negritos appear to have been extra a large number of, or no less than extra in proof. They had been in an instant spotted at the island of Negros, the place at the moment they’re few and confined to the inner; and within the neighborhood of Manila and in Batangas, the place they’re not discovered, they had been mingling with the Tagálog inhabitants.

Prerequisites of Tradition.—The tradition of the quite a lot of tribes, which is now relatively the similar all the way through the archipelago, offered some variations. Within the southern Bisayas, the place the Spaniards first entered the archipelago, there appear to have been two varieties of natives: the hill dwellers, who lived within the inside of the islands in small numbers, who wore clothes of tree bark and who from time to time constructed their homes within the timber; and the ocean dwellers, who had been very similar to the existing day Moro tribes south of Mindanao, who’re referred to as the Sámal, and who constructed their villages over the ocean or at the shore and lived a lot in boats. Those had been most certainly later arrivals than the woodland humans. From either one of those parts the Bisaya Filipinos are descended, however whilst the coast humans were completely absorbed, one of the hill-folk are nonetheless pagan and uncivilized, and will have to be very a lot as they had been when the Spaniards first got here.

The easiest grade of tradition used to be within the settlements the place there used to be common business with Borneo, Siam, and China, and particularly about Manila, the place many Mohammedan Malays had colonies.

Languages of the Malayan Peoples.—Except for the Negrito, the entire languages of the Philippines belong to at least one nice circle of relatives, which has been referred to as the “Malayo-Polynesian.” All are believed to be derived from one very historical mother-tongue. It’s astonishing how broadly this Malayo-Polynesian speech has unfold. Farthest east within the Pacific there’s the Polynesian, then within the teams of small islands, referred to as Micronesian; then Melanesian or Papuan; the Malayan all the way through the East Indian archipelago, and to the north the languages of the Philippines. However this isn’t all; for a ways westward at the coast of Africa is the island of Madagascar, a lot of whose languages haven’t any reference to African however belong to the Malayo-Polynesian circle of relatives.

The Tagálog Language.—It will have to be a question of serious pastime to Filipinos that the good scientist, Baron William von Humboldt, regarded as the Tagálog to be the richest and maximum best possible of the entire languages of the Malayo-Polynesian circle of relatives, and most likely the kind of all of them. “It possesses,” he mentioned, “the entire bureaucracy jointly of which explicit ones are discovered singly in different dialects; and it has preserved all of them with very trifling exceptions unbroken, and in complete solidarity and symmetry.” The Spanish friars, on their arrival within the Philippines, faithful themselves directly to finding out the local dialects and to the preparation of prayers and catechisms in those local tongues. They had been very a hit of their research. Father Chirino tells us of 1 Jesuit who realized enough Tagálog in seventy days to evangelise and listen to confession. On this means the Bisayan, the Tagálog, and the Ilocano had been quickly mastered.

Within the mild of the opinion of Von Humboldt, it’s attention-grabbing to search out those early Spaniards announcing the Tagálog essentially the most tough and essentially the most admirable. “Of them all,” says Padre Chirino, “the only which maximum happy me and stuffed me with admiration used to be the Tagálog. As a result of, as I mentioned to the primary archbishop, and afterwards to different critical individuals, each there and right here, I discovered in it 4 qualities of the 4 absolute best languages of the arena: Hebrew, Greek, Latin, and Spanish; of the Hebrew, the mysteries and obscurities; of the Greek, the articles and the precision now not best of the appellative but additionally of the right kind nouns; of the Latin, the wealth and magnificence; and of the Spanish, the great breeding, politeness, and courtesy.”

An Early Reference to the Hindus.—The Malayan languages comprise additionally a substantial share of phrases borrowed from the Sanskrit, and on this the Tagálog, Bisayan, and Ilocano are integrated. Whether or not those phrases had been handed alongside from one Malayan crew to some other, or whether or not they had been offered by means of the true presence and tool of the Hindu on this archipelago, could also be truthful floor for debate; however the case for the latter place has been so effectively and brilliantly put by means of Dr. Pardo de Tavera that his conclusions are right here given in his personal phrases. “The phrases which Tagálog borrowed,” he says, “are the ones which symbolize highbrow acts, ethical conceptions, feelings, superstitions, names of deities, of planets, of numerals of top quantity, of botany, of warfare and its effects and penalties, and in the end of titles and dignities, some animals, tools of business, and the names of cash.”

From the proof of those works, Dr. Pardo argues for a duration within the early historical past of the Filipinos, now not simply of industrial sex, like that of the Chinese language, however of Hindu political and social domination. “I don’t imagine,” he says, “and I base my opinion at the identical phrases that I’ve introduced in combination on this vocabulary, that the Hindus had been right here merely as traders, however that they ruled other portions of the archipelago, the place to-day are spoken essentially the most cultured languages,—the Tagálo, the Visayan, the Pampanga, and the Ilocano; and that the upper tradition of those languages comes exactly from the affect of the Hindu race over the Filipino.”

The Hindus within the Philippines.—“It’s unattainable to imagine that the Hindus, in the event that they got here best as traders, on the other hand nice their quantity, would have inspired themselves in this type of means as to present to those islanders the quantity and the type of phrases which they did give. Those names of dignitaries, of caciques, of top functionaries of the courtroom, of noble girls, point out that every one of those top positions with names of Sanskrit beginning had been occupied at one time by means of males who spoke that language. The phrases of a equivalent beginning for items of warfare, fortresses, and battle-songs, for designating items of non secular trust, for superstitions, feelings, emotions, commercial and farming actions, display us obviously that the war, faith, literature, business, and agriculture had been at one time within the palms of the Hindus, and that this race used to be successfully dominant within the Philippines.”

Programs of Writing a few of the Filipinos.—When the Spaniards arrived within the Philippines, the Filipinos had been the usage of programs of writing borrowed from Hindu or Javanese resources. This topic is so attention-grabbing that one cannot do higher than to cite in complete Padre Chirino’s account, as he’s the primary of the Spanish writers to say it and as his realize is relatively entire.

“So given are those islanders to studying and writing that there’s hardly ever a person, and far much less a girl, that doesn’t learn and write in letters ordinary to the island of Manila, very other from the ones of China, Japan, and of India, as shall be noticed from the next alphabet.

“The vowels are 3; however they serve for 5, and are,

a

e, i

o, u

The consonants are not more than twelve, and so they serve to jot down each consonant and vowel, on this shape. The letter by myself, with none level both above or beneath, sounds with a.

Ba

ca

da

ga

ha

l. a.

ma

na

pa

sa

ta

ya

Putting the purpose above, each and every one sounds with e or with i.

ᜊᜒ

ᜃᜒ

ᜇᜒ

ᜄᜒ

ᜑᜒ

ᜎᜒ

Bi

qui

di

gui

hello

li

be

que

de

gue

he

le

ᜋᜒ

ᜈᜒ

ᜉᜒ

ᜐᜒ

ᜎᜒ

ᜌᜒ

mi

ni

pi

si

ti

yi

me

ne

pe

se

te

ye

Putting the purpose beneath, it sounds with o or with u.

ᜊᜓ

ᜃᜓ

ᜇᜓ

ᜄᜓ

ᜑᜓ

ᜎᜓ

bo

co

do

cross

ho

lo

bu

cu

du

gu

hu

lu

ᜋᜓ

ᜈᜓ

ᜉᜓ

ᜐᜓ

ᜎᜓ

ᜌᜓ

mo

no

po

so

to

yo

mu

nu

pu

su

tu

yu

As an example, in an effort to say ‘cama,’ the 2 letters by myself suffice.

ca

ma

If to the    ᜃ there’s positioned some degree above, it’ll say

ᜃᜒ

que

ma

Whether it is given to each beneath, it’ll say

ᜃᜓ

ᜋᜓ

co

mo

The general consonants are provided or understood in all instances, and with the intention to say ‘cantar,’ they write

ca

ta

barba,

ba

ba

However with all, and that with out many evasions, they make themselves understood, and so they themselves perceive marvellously. And the reader provides, with a lot ability and simplicity, the consonants which are missing. They’ve realized from us to jot down working the strains from the left hand to the best, however previously they simply wrote from above downwards, putting the primary line (if I bear in mind rightly) on the left hand, and proceeding with the others to the best, the other of the Chinese language and Jap…. They write upon canes or on leaves of a palm, the usage of for a pen some degree of iron. In this day and age in writing now not onlytheir personal but additionally our letters, they use a feather really well minimize, and paper like ourselves.

They’ve realized our language and pronunciation, and write in addition to we do, or even higher; for they’re so vivid that they be told the whole lot with the best ease. I’ve introduced with me handwriting with superb and right kind lettering. In Tigbauan, I had at school an overly small kid, who in 3 months’ time realized, by means of copying from well-written letters that I set him, to jot down sufficient higher than I, and transcribed for me writings of significance very faithfully, and with out mistakes or errors. However sufficient of languages and letters; now allow us to go back to our career with human souls.”

Sanskrit Supply of the Filipino Alphabet.—But even so the Tagálog, the Bisaya, Pampango, Pangasinan, and Ilocano had alphabets, or extra correctly syllabaries very similar to this one. Dr. Pardo de Tavera has amassed many information relating to them, and presentations that they had been certainly won by means of the Filipinos from a Sanskrit supply.

Early Filipino Writings.—The Filipinos used this writing for surroundings down their poems and songs, that have been their best literature. None of this, on the other hand, has come all the way down to us, and the Filipinos quickly followed the Spanish alphabet, forming the syllables vital to jot down their language from those letters. As these kind of have phonetic values, it’s nonetheless really easy for a Filipino to learn how to pronounce and so learn his personal tongue. Those previous characters lingered for a few centuries, in positive puts. Padre Totanes tells us that it used to be uncommon in 1705 to search out an individual who may just use them; however the Tagbanua, a pagan humans at the island of Paragua, use a equivalent syllabary to nowadays. But even so poems, they’d songs which they sang as they rowed their canoes, as they pounded the rice from its husk, and as they amassed for banquet or leisure; and particularly there have been songs for the lifeless. In those songs, says Chirino, they recounted the deeds in their ancestors or in their deities.

Chinese language within the Philippines.Early Industry.—Very other from the Hindu used to be the early affect of the Chinese language. There’s no proof that, prior to the Spanish conquest, the Chinese language settled or colonized in those islands in any respect; and but 300 years earlier than the arriving of Magellan their trading-fleets had been coming right here ceaselessly and several other of the islands had been widely known to them. One proof of this prehistoric business is within the historical Chinese language jars and pottery which were exhumed within the neighborhood of Manila, however the Chinese language writings themselves furnish us even higher evidence. In regards to the starting of the 13th century, despite the fact that now not previous than 1205, a Chinese language creator named Chao Ju-kua wrote a piece upon the maritime trade of the Chinese language humans. One bankruptcy of his paintings is dedicated to the Philippines, which he calls the rustic of Mayi. In line with this report it’s indicated that the Chinese language had been conversant in the islands of the archipelago 700 years in the past.

Chinese language, Description of the Other people.—“The rustic of Mayi,” says this attention-grabbing vintage, “is located to the north of Poni (Burney, or Borneo). A few thousand households inhabit the banks of an overly winding circulate. The natives dress themselves in sheets of material corresponding to mattress sheets, or quilt their our bodies with sarongs. (The sarong is the homosexual coloured, standard garment of the Malay.) Scattered during the intensive forests are copper Buddha photographs, however no person is aware of how they were given there.

Moro Brass Betel Field.

“When the service provider (Chinese language) ships arrive at this port they anchor in entrance of an open position … which serves as a marketplace, the place they business within the produce of the rustic. When a boat enters this port, the captain makes items of white umbrellas (to the mandarins). The traders are obliged to pay this tribute in an effort to download the great will of those lords.” The goods of the rustic are mentioned to be yellow wax, cotton, pearls, shells, betel nuts, and yuta material, which used to be most likely probably the most a number of cloths nonetheless woven of abacá, or piña. The articles imported by means of the Chinese language had been “porcelain, business gold, items of lead, glass beads of all colours, iron cooking-pans, and iron needles.”

The Negritos.—Very curious is the correct point out on this Chinese language writing, of the Negritos, the to start with accounts to be fabricated from the little blacks. “Within the inside of the valleys lives a race referred to as Hai-tan (Acta). They’re, of low stature, have spherical eyes of a yellow colour, curly hair, and their tooth are simply noticed between their lips. (This is, most certainly, now not darkened by means of betel-chewing or synthetic stains.) They construct their nests within the treetops and in each and every nest lives a circle of relatives, which best is composed of from 3 to 5 individuals. They trip about within the densest thickets of the forests, and, with out being noticed themselves, shoot their arrows on the passers-by; because of this they’re much feared. If the dealer (Chinese language) throws them a small porcelain bowl, they’re going to droop all the way down to catch it after which run away with it, shouting joyfully.”

Build up in Chinese language Industry.—Those junks additionally visited the extra central islands, however right here visitors used to be carried out at the ships, the Chinese language on arrival pronouncing themselves by means of beating gongs and the Filipinos popping out to them of their mild boats. Amongst different issues right here introduced by means of the natives for business are discussed “peculiar material,” most likely cinamay or jusi, and superb mats.

This Chinese language business endured most certainly relatively continuously till the arriving of the Spaniards. Then it won a huge building up during the call for for Chinese language food-products and wares made by means of the Spaniards, and as a result of the worth of the Mexican silver which the Spaniards introduced in change.

Industry with the Moro Malays of the South.—The unfold of Mohammedanism and particularly the basis of the colony of Borneo introduced the Philippines into vital business members of the family with the Malays of the south. Prior to the arriving of the Spaniards those members of the family appear to have been pleasant and non violent. The Mohammedan Malays despatched their praos northward for functions of business, and so they had been additionally settling within the north Philippines as they’d in Mindanao.

When Legaspi’s fleet, quickly after its arrival, lay close to the island of Bohol, the “Maestro de Campo” had a troublesome combat with a Moro vessel which had arise for business, and took six prisoners. Certainly one of them, whom they name the “pilot,” used to be intently interrogated by means of the Adelantado and a few attention-grabbing data acquired, which is recorded by means of Padre San Augustin. Legaspi had a Malay slave interpreter with him and San Augustin says that Padre Urdaneta “knew effectively the Malayan language.” The pilot mentioned that “the ones of Borneo introduced for business with the Filipinos, copper and tin, which used to be delivered to Borneo from China, porcelain, dishes, and bells made of their style, very other from those who the Christians use, and benzoin, and coloured blankets from India, and cooking-pans made in China, and that in addition they introduced iron lances really well tempered, and knives and different articles of barter, and that during change for them they took clear of the islands gold, slaves, wax, and a type of small seashell which they name ‘sijueyes,’ and which passes for cash within the kingdom of Siam and different puts; and likewise they convey off some white cloths, of which there’s a super amount within the islands.”

Butúan, at the north coast of Mindanao, turns out to were relatively a trading-place resorted to by means of vessels from all quarters. This nation, like many different portions of the Philippines, has comprised of time immemorial small amounts of gold, and the entire early voyagers talk of the gold earrings and adorns of the natives. Butúan additionally produced sugarcane and used to be a trading-port for slaves. This unlucky visitors in human existence turns out to were now not bizarre, and used to be without doubt stimulated by means of the trade with Borneo. Junks from Siam buying and selling with Cebu had been additionally encountered by means of the Spaniards.

Moro Brass Cannon, or “Lantaka.”

Results of this Sex and Trade.—This sex and visitors had familiar the Filipinos with most of the equipment of civilized existence lengthy earlier than the arriving of the Spaniards. Their chiefs and datos wearing silks, and maintained some splendor of atmosphere; just about the entire inhabitants of the tribes of the coast wrote and communicated by way of a syllabary; vessels from Luzon traded as a ways south as Mindanao and Borneo, even if the goods of Asia right kind got here during the fleets of foreigners; and most likely what signifies extra obviously than the rest the improvement the Filipinos had been making via their communique with out of doors humans is their use of firearms. Of this level there’s no query. Far and wide within the neighborhood of Manila, on Lubang, in Pampanga, at Cainta and Laguna de Bay, the Spaniards encountered forts mounting small cannon, or “lantakas.” The Filipinos appear to have understood, additionally, the humanities of casting cannon and of creating powder. The primary gun-factory established by means of the Spaniards used to be accountable for a Filipino from Pampanga.

Early Political and Social Lifestyles.The Barangay.—The weakest facet of the tradition of the early Filipinos used to be their political and social group, and so they had been susceptible right here in exactly the similar means that the now uncivilized peoples of northern Luzon are nonetheless susceptible. Their state didn’t include the entire tribe or country; it integrated merely the neighborhood. Outdoor of the settlers in a single fast neighborhood, all others had been enemies or at maximum foreigners. There have been within the Philippines no massive states, nor even nice rajas and sultans equivalent to had been discovered within the Malay Archipelago, however as an alternative on each and every island had been a mess of small communities, each and every impartial of the opposite and continuously waging warfare.

The unit in their political order used to be slightly cluster of homes from thirty to at least one hundred households, referred to as a “barangay,” and which nonetheless exists within the Philippines because the “barrio.” On the head of each and every barangay used to be a first-rate referred to as the “dato,” a phrase not used within the northern Philippines, despite the fact that it persists a few of the Moros of Mindanao. The powers of those datos inside of their small spaces seem to have been nice, and so they had been handled with utmost recognize by means of the folk.

The barangays had been grouped in combination in tiny federations together with about as a lot territory as the existing cities, whose affairs had been carried out by means of the chiefs or datos, even if from time to time they appear to have all been in obedience to a unmarried leader, recognized in some puts because the “hari,” at different instances by means of the Hindu phrase “raja,” or the Mohammedan time period “sultan.” Every so often the ability of this kind of rajas turns out to have prolonged over the complete of a small island, however normally their “kingdoms” embraced just a few miles.

Adjustments Made by means of the Spaniards.—The Spaniards, in implementing their authority during the islands, took away the true energy from the datos, grouping the barangays into cities, or “pueblos,” however making the datos “cabezas de barrio,” or “gobernadorcillos.” One thing of the previous difference between the dato, or “essential,” and the typical guy could also be nonetheless represented within the “gente illustrada,” or the extra rich, skilled, and influential elegance present in each and every the city, and the “gente baja,” or the deficient and uneducated.

Categories of Filipinos underneath the Datos.—Underneath the datos, in line with Chirino and Morga, there have been 3 categories of Filipinos; the loose individuals, or “maharlica,” who paid no tribute to the dato, however who accompanied him to warfare, rowed his boat when he went on a adventure, and attended him in his area. This elegance is named by means of Morga “timauas.”

Then there used to be an overly massive elegance, who seem to have been freedmen or liberated slaves, who had obtained their very own houses and lived with their households, however who owed to dato or maharlica heavy money owed of provider; to sow and harvest in his ricefields, to have a tendency his fish-traps, to row his canoe, to construct his area, to wait him when he had visitors, and to accomplish every other tasks that the executive would possibly command. Those semi-free had been referred to as “aliping namamahay,” and their situation of bondage descended to their youngsters.

Underneath those existed a category of slaves. Those had been the “siguiguiliris,” and so they had been a large number of. Their slavery arose in numerous techniques. Some had been those that as youngsters have been captured in warfare and their lives spared. Some was slaves by means of promoting their freedom in instances of starvation. However maximum of them was slaves via debt, which descended from father to son. The sum of 5 or 6 pesos used to be sufficient in some instances to deprive a person of his freedom.

Those slaves had been completely owned by means of their lord, who may just theoretically promote them like farm animals; however, regardless of its unhealthy chances, this Filipino slavery used to be ordinarily now not of a merciless or distressing nature. The slaves continuously related on kindly members of the family with their masters and weren’t overworked. This type of slavery nonetheless persists within the Philippines a few of the Moros of Mindanao and Jolo. Kids of slaves inherited their oldsters’ slavery. If one father or mother used to be loose and the opposite slave, the primary, 3rd, and 5th youngsters had been loose and the second one, fourth, and 6th slaves. This complete topic of inheritance of slavery used to be interestingly labored out in minute main points.

Lifestyles within the Barangay.—Neighborhood feeling used to be very robust throughout the barangay. A person may just now not go away his personal barangay for existence in some other with out the consent of the neighborhood and the cost of cash. If a person of 1 barrio married a girl of some other, their youngsters had been divided between the 2 barangays. The barangay used to be chargeable for the great behavior of its contributors, and if considered one of them suffered an damage from a person out of doors, the entire barangay needed to be appeased. Disputes and wrongs between contributors of the similar barangay had been referred to plenty of previous males, who determined the topic in keeping with the customs of the tribe, that have been passed down by means of custom.

The Faith of the Filipinos.—The Filipinos at the arrival of the Spaniards had been fetish-worshipers, however they’d one spirit whom they believed used to be the best of all and the writer or maker of items. The Tagálog referred to as this deity Bathala, the Bisaya, Laon, and the Ilocano, Kabunian. In addition they worshiped the spirits in their ancestors, that have been represented by means of small photographs referred to as “anitos.” Fetishes, that are any items believed to own miraculous energy, had been not unusual a few of the humans, and idols or photographs had been worshiped. Pigafetta describes some idols which he noticed in Cebu, and Chirino tells us that, throughout the reminiscence of Filipinos whom he knew, they’d idols of stone, wooden, bone, or the enamel of a crocodile, and that there have been a few of gold.

In addition they reverenced animals and birds, particularly the crocodile, the raven, and a legendary chook of blue or yellow colour, which used to be referred to as by means of the identify in their deity Bathala. They’d no temples or public puts of worship, however each and every one had his anitos in his personal area and carried out his sacrifices and acts of worship there. As sacrifices they killed pigs or chickens, and made such events instances of feasting, music, and drunkenness. The lifetime of the Filipino used to be certainly full of superstitious fears and imaginings.

The Mohammedan Malays.—The Mohammedans out of doors of southern Mindanao and Jolo, had settled within the neighborhood of Manila Bay and on Mindoro, Lubang, and adjoining coasts of Luzon. The unfold of Mohammedanism used to be stopped by means of the Spaniards, even if it’s narrated that for a very long time a lot of the ones residing at the shores of Manila Bay refused to devour beef, which is forbidden by means of the Koran, and practiced the ceremony of circumcision. As past due as 1583, Bishop Salazar, in writing to the king of affairs within the Philippines, says the Moros had preached the regulation of Mohammed to nice numbers in those islands and by means of this preaching most of the Gentiles had develop into Mohammedans; and extra he provides, “Those that have won this foul regulation guard it with a lot patience and there’s nice issue in making them abandon it; and with reason too, for the explanations they offer, to our disgrace and confusion, are that they had been higher handled by means of the preachers of Mohammed than they have got been by means of the preachers of Christ.”

Subject matter Growth of the Filipinos.—The fabric atmosphere of the Filipino earlier than the arriving of the Spaniards had been in just about each and every means relatively as they’re to-day. The “heart of inhabitants” of each and every the city to-day, with its nice church, tribunal, shops and homes of stone and wooden, is indubitably in marked distinction; however the look of a barrio slightly distance from the middle is to-day most certainly a lot because it used to be then. Then, as now, the majority of the folk lived in humble homes of bamboo and nipa raised on piles above the dampness of the soil; then, as now, the meals used to be in large part rice and the very good fish which abound in river and sea. There have been at the water the similar acquainted bancas and fish corrals, and on land the rice fields and cocoanut groves. The Filipinos had then lots of the provide domesticated animals,—canines, cats, goats, chickens, and pigs,—and most likely in Luzon the domesticated buffalo, even if this animal used to be broadly offered into the Philippines from China after the Spanish conquest. Horses got here with the Spaniards and their numbers had been greater by means of the bringing in of Chinese language mares, whose importation is continuously discussed.

The Spaniards offered additionally the cultivation of tobacco, espresso, and cacao, and most likely additionally the local corn of The usa, the maize, even if Pigafetta says they discovered it already rising within the Bisayas.

The Filipino has been suffering from those centuries of Spanish sovereignty a ways much less on his subject material facet than he has on his religious, and it’s principally within the deepening and raising of his emotional and psychological existence and now not within the improving of his subject material situation that advance has been made.


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